Considerations of Hadoop in the Enterprise

I am guilty. I have not been tendering this blog for quite a while now, but it feels good to be back. What have I been doing? Since leaving NetApp 2 months or so ago, I have been active in the scenes again. This time I am more aligned towards data analytics and its burgeoning impact on the storage networking segment.

I was intrigued by an article posted by a friend of mine in Facebook. The article (circa 2013) was titled “Never, ever do this to Hadoop”. It described the author’s gripe with the SAN bigots. I have encountered storage professionals who throw in the SAN solution every time, because that was all they know. NAS, to them, was like that old relative smelled of camphor oil and they avoid NAS like a plague. Similar DAS was frowned upon but how things have changed. The pendulum has swung back to DAS and new market segments such as VSANs and Hyper Converged platforms have been dominating the scene in the past 2 years. I highlighted this in my blog, “Praying to the Hypervisor God” almost 2 years ago.

I agree with the author, Andrew C. Oliver. The “locality” of resources is central to Hadoop’s performance.

Consider these 2 models:


In the model on your left (Moving Data to Compute), the delivery process from Storage to Compute is HEAVY. That is because data has dependencies; data has gravity. However, if you consider the model on your right (Moving Compute to Data), delivering data processing to the storage layer is much lighter. Compute or data processing is transient, and the data in the compute layer is volatile. Once compute’s power is turned off, everything starts again from a clean slate, hence the volatile stage.

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A little yellow elephant

By now, I believe most of you in the storage networking world would have heard of Hadoop. Hadoop was created by Doug Cutting, while he and his team was working on an open source web search engine called Nutch. The easily recognized little yellow elephant, Hadoop, was Doug Cutting’s son toy, which he made as Hadoop’s mascot. Pretty cool!

And today, Hadoop has become THE platform for Big Data applications. Why?

As I have mentioned before, everything that we do or don’t do, generates data, either as a direct product or in-direct product. I am blogging right now and I am creating data. I was in Singapore the whole of this week and everywhere I go in the MRT stations, I am being watched by the video cameras they have at the station. A new friend in class said that Singapore is the second most “watched” city after London, where there are video cameras mounted everywhere, either discreetly or indiscreetly. And that’s just video data. And there’s plenty of other human activities that generate tons and tons of data.

IDC Digital Universe Report for 2011 said that we have generated 1.8ZB (zettabyte) of data this year alone. I mentioned in my previous blog that this is a gold mine and companies are scrambling to tap on massive amount of data.  Extracting valuable information to anticipate the next trend or predict that next evolution in human preference is akin to the Gold Rush in the wild, wild west in the late 19th century. Folks, Big Data is going to be this generation’s “Digital Gold Rush”.

Sieving, filtering and processing gazillions of data (more unstructured than structured) will not work in defined, well-formatted relational databases. The data model of relational databases will simply break down. And of course, there are different schools of thoughts of different data models, but the Hadoop model seems to be gaining momentum and mind share of data scientists. That is because of Hadoop’s capability to deal with massive unstructured data, processing it and producing results in a small amount of time.

One way to process the pool of massive data is parallel programming. In parallel programming, multi-threading is commonly deployed to achieve the performance and effects of programming. But implementing multi-threading in parallel programming is difficult. Developers often has to deal with LWP (lightweight processes), semaphores, shared memory, mutex (mutually exclusive) locking and so on. Hence this style of programming works with different states on shared data, often resulting in different results in different states, even when using the same programming expression.

Hadoop belongs to another school of programming known as functional programming, where the different states on shared data concept is removed. With that in mind, the dependency on different states is also removed, resulting in a much easier and simpler parallel programming implementation. Hadoop borrows ideas from the MapReduce software framework made well known by Google and the Google File System.

Before, we get to know Hadoop, we must know MapReduce. MapReduce is a framework which allows very large data sets to be processed with a very large set of computer nodes in a cluster. Typically the computational processing is executed in a distributed fashion, spread across many computer nodes and final results are consolidated from the sub-results of these distributed processing nodes.

According to Wikipedia, the 2 key functions of Map Reduce are map() and reduce(). That’s pretty obvious. The extract below was taken from the Wikipedia definition, and explains both functions very well.

“Map” step: The master node takes the input, partitions it up into smaller sub-problems, and distributes them to worker nodes. A worker node may do this again in turn, leading to a multi-level tree structure. The worker node processes the smaller problem, and passes the answer back to its master node.

“Reduce” step: The master node then collects the answers to all the sub-problems and combines them in some way to form the output – the answer to the problem it was originally trying to solve.

The diagram below probably can simplify the concept of MapReduce to the readers.


Hadoop is one of the open-source implementations of MapReduce. It is one of the projects of Apache Foundation, and the project has sparked a brand-new niche of data search, data management and data science. The diagram below will allow our readers to juxtapose MapReduce and Hadoop, and comparing them in the simplest fashion.

Hadoop primary development platform is Java. Hadoop’s architecture consists mainly of 2 components – Hadoop Common and a Hadoop-compatible file system, as shown in the diagram below.

Hadoop MapReduce layer above is the file/object access interface to the Hadoop-compatible file system below. HDFS is Hadoop Distributed File System is just one of a few Hadoop-compatible file systems. Other file systems include:

  • Amazon S3 File System as part of the Amazon EC2 Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud platform
  • CloudStore – a similar Hadoop-like implementation using C++ and also inspired by Google File System
  • FTP file systems
  • HTTP and HTTPS read-only file systems
  • Any file systems accessible with the file:// URL nomenclature

But the main engine of Hadoop is in the MapReduce layer. The 2 core components in this layer is JobTracker and TaskTracker. Both has their own individual roles to play and collectively, they are key cogs in the Hadoop distributed data processing model.

Below are extract I picked up from Wikipedia.

JobTracker submits MapReduce jobs to client applications. The JobTracker pushes work out to available TaskTracker nodes in the cluster, striving to keep the work as close to the data as possible. With a rack-aware filesystem, the JobTracker knows which node contains the data, and which other machines are nearby. If the work cannot be hosted on the actual node where the data resides, priority is given to nodes in the same rack. This reduces network traffic on the main backbone network. If a TaskTracker fails or times out, that part of the job is rescheduled. The TaskTracker on each node spawns off a separate Java Virtual Machine process to prevent the TaskTracker itself from failing if the running job crashes the JVM. A heartbeat is sent from the TaskTracker to the JobTracker every few minutes to check its status. The Job Tracker and TaskTracker status and information is exposed by Jetty and can be viewed from a web browser. Jetty is a Java-based HTTP server, among other things

JobTracker records what it is up to in the filesystem. When a JobTracker starts up, it looks for any such data, so that it can restart work from where it left off.


By default Hadoop uses first-in, first-out (FIFO), and optional 5 scheduling priorities to schedule jobs from a work queue. In version 0.19 the job scheduler was refactored out of the JobTracker, and added the ability to use an alternate scheduler (such as the Fair scheduler or the Capacity scheduler).

Fair scheduler

The fair scheduler was developed by Facebook. The goal of the fair scheduler is to provide fast response times for small jobs and QoS (Quality of Service) for production jobs. The fair scheduler has three basic concepts.

  1. Jobs are grouped into Pools.
  2. Each pool is assigned a guaranteed minimum share.
  3. Excess capacity is split between jobs.

By default jobs that are uncategorized go into a default pool. Pools have to specify the minimum number of map slots, reduce slots, and a limit on the number of running jobs.

Capacity scheduler

The capacity scheduler was developed by Yahoo. The capacity scheduler supports several features which are similar to the fair scheduler.

  • Jobs are submitted into queues.
  • Queues are allocated a fraction of the total resource capacity.
  • Free resources are allocated to queues beyond their total capacity.
  • Within a queue a job with a high level of priority will have access to the queue’s resources.

I took most the extract below from Wikipedia, and I don’t claim to be a knowledgeable person on Hadoop. All the credits go to Wikipedia editors to put Hadoop in layman terms.

Hadoop has certainly won the hearts of the new digital gold rush, Big Data and is slowly becoming a force to be reckoned with among data scientists. Hadoop implementations are powering new frontiers in processing and mining the ever growing data capacity, giving solution providers a simple programming methodology and data model to gain more insights into the vast seas of data and information.

Hadoop has many fans, and slowly becoming the data platform for large companies such as Yahoo!, Facebook, IBM, Amazon, Apple, eBay and many more. Facebook even claims to have the largest Hadoop clusters in the world, growing to 30PB in July of 2011.

This little yellow elephant is going places and one to watch out for.

Greenplum looking mighty sweet

Big data is Big Business these days. IDC predicts that between 2012 and 2020, the spending on big data solution will account for 80% of IT spending and growing at 18% per annum. EMC predicts that the big data is worth USD$70 billion! That’s a very huge market.

We generate data, and plenty of it. In the IDC Digital Universe Report for 2011 (sponsored by EMC), approximately 1.8 zettabytes of data will be created and replicated in 2011. How much is 1 zettabyte, you say? Look at the conversion below:

                    1 zettabyte = 1 billion terabytes

That’s right, folks. 1 billion terabytes!

And this “mountain” of data and information is a Goldmine of goldmines, and companies around the world are scrambling to tap on this treasure chest. According to Wikibon, big data has the following characteristics:

  • Very large, distributed aggregations of loosely structured data – often incomplete and inaccessible
  • Petabytes/exabytes of data
  • Millions/billions of people
  • Billions/trillions of records
  • Loosely-structured and often distributed data
  • Flat schemas with few complex interrelationships
  • Often involving time-stamped events
  • Often made up of incomplete data
  • Often including connections between data elements that must be probabilistically inferred

But what is relevant is not the definition of big data, but rather what you get from the mountain of information generated.  The ability to “mine” the information from big data, now popularly known as Big Data Analytics, has sparked a new field within the data storage and data management industry. This is called Data Science. And companies and enterprises that are able to effectively use the new data from Big Data will win big in the next decade. Activities such as

  • Business decision making
  • Gain competitive advantage
  • Drive productivity growth in relevant industry segments
  • Understanding consumer and business behavioural patterns
  • Knowing buying decisions and business cycles
  • Yielding new innovation
  • Reveal customer insights
  • much, much more

will drive a whole new paradigm that shall be known as Data Science.

And EMC, having purchased Greenplum more than a year ago, has started their Data Computing Products Division immediately after the Greenplum acquisition. And in October of 2010, EMC announced their Greenplum Data Computing Appliance with some impressive numbers. Using 2 configurations of their appliance, noted below:


Below are 2 tables of the Greenplum performance benchmarks:



That’s what these big data appliance is able. The ability to load billions of either structured or unstructured files or objects in mere minutes is what drives the massive adoption of Big Data.

And a few days, EMC announced their Greenplum Unified Analytics Platform (UAP) which comprises of 3 Greenplum components:

  • A relational database for structured data
  • An enterprise Hadoop engine for the analysis and processing of unstructured data
  • Chorus 2.0, which is a social media collaboration tool for data scientists

The diagram below summarizes the UAP solution:

Greenplum is certainly ahead of the curve. Competitors like IBM Netezza, Teradata and Oracle Exalogic are racing to be ahead but Greenplum is one of the early adopters of a single platform for big data. Having a consolidation platform will not only reduce costs (integration of all big data components usually incurs high professional services’ fees) but will also reduce the barrier to entry to big data, thus further accelerating the adoption of big data.

Big Data is still very much at its infancy and EMC is pushing to establish its footprint in this space. EMC Education has already announce the general availability of courses related to big data last week and also the EMC Data Science Architect (EMC DSA) certification. Greenplum is enjoying the early sweetness of the Big Data game and there will be more to come. I am certainly looking forward to share more on this plum (pun intended ;-)) of the data storage and data management excitement.