The Windows DirectStorage API feature is only available in Windows 11. It was announced as part of the Xbox® Velocity Architecture last year to take advantage of the high I/O capability of modern day NVMe SSDs. DirectStorage-enabled applications and games have several technologies such as D3D Direct3D decompression/compression algorithm designed for the GPU, and SFS Sampler Feedback Streaming that uses the previous rendered frame results to decide which higher resolution texture frames to be loaded into memory of the GPU and rendered for the real-time gaming experience.
The cryptocurrency craze has elevated another strong candidate in recent months. Filecoin, is leading the voice of a decentralized Internet, the next generation Web 3.0. In this blog, I am not going to write much about the Filecoin frenzy but the underlying distributed file system that powers this phenomenon – The Interplanetary File System.
[ Note: This is still a very new area for me, and the rest of the content of this blog is still nascent and developing ]
Interplanetary File System
Tremulous Client-Server web architecture
The entire Internet architecture is almost client and server. Your clients like browsers, apps, connect to Web services served from a collection of servers. As Web 3.0 approaches (some say it is already here), the client-server model is no longer perceived as the Internet architecture of choice. Billions, and billions of users, applications, devices relying solely on a centralized service would lead to many impactful consequences, and the reasons for decentralization, away from the client-server architecture models of the Internet are cogent.
Last Friday I received an SMS and a WhatsApp message from an ex-bank employee who was terminated from a complaint I made (not about him) about the bank violating my data privacy. The bank and/or their agents have been calling my number for several years (more than 5), and I have made numerous (many, many) requests not to be called or have my name deleted from their calling database. This has fallen into deaf ears until I decided to take matters into my own hands.
Red means NO!
In May of this year, I decided to use Twitter to tweet my unpleasant experiences and my displeasure to the bank’s Twitter handle. They responded with canned replies and made promises that really did not amount to anything. Right after my 2nd last complaint to date, the following day I got another telemarketer from the bank calling me (again) trying to sell me their insurance package. By now, I already got their head of customer advocacy center’s contact and I called him to complain again. This complaint got this telemarketer from the bank fired. Friday, this ex-employee sent me a WhatsApp and an SMS message telling his side of the story, asked me to withdraw my complaint and have him reinstated.
I have started to enhance the work that I did last weekend with Nextcloud on FreeNAS™. I promised to share the innards of my work but first I have to set the right expectations for the readers. This blog is just a documentation of the early work I have been doing to get Nextcloud on FreeNAS™ off the ground quickly. Also there are far better blogs than mine on the Nextcloud topic.
This is tested on FreeNAS™ 11.2U5 on Virtualbox. This is an EOLed version. The Nextcloud version on this FreeNAS is version 17, not the latest version. I am testing this version for a friend.
These are quick and dirty instructions set to install and configure Nextcloud. It is not for production and it is not secure. Future blogs will discuss about HTTPS, SSL certificate and Reverse Proxy.
I ride on the shoulders of giants. Many have done great work to create instruction video with Nextcloud on FreeNAS™. I thank you to these folks for their great and selfless Youtube videos contributions.
In recent weeks, I have been asked by friends and old cust0mers on how to extend their NAS shared drives to work-from-home, the new reality. Malaysia went into a full lockdown as of June 1st several days ago.
I have written about file synchronization stories before but I have never done a Nextcloud blog. I have little experience with TrueNAS® CORE Nextcloud plugin and this was a good weekend to build it up from scratch with Virtualbox with FreeNAS™ 11.2U5 (because my friend was using that version).
So, here it how it went for my little experiment. FYI, this is not a How-to guide. That will come later after I have put all my notes together with screenshots and all. This is just a collection of my thoughts while setting up Nextcloud on FreeNAS™.
Dropbox® is expensive
Using cloud storage with file sync and share capability is not exactly a cheap thing especially when you are a small medium sized business or a school or a charity organization. Here is the pricing table for Dropbox® for Business :
Dropbox for business pricing
I am using Dropbox® as the example here but the same can be said for OneDrive or Google Drive and others. The pricing can quickly add up when the price is calculated per user per month.
The original SAN was not always Storage Area Network. SAN had a twin nomenclature called System Area Network (SAN) back in the late 90s. Fibre Channelfabric topology (THE Storage Area Network) was only starting to take off when many of the Fibre Channel topologies at the time were either FC-AL (Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop) or Point-to-Point. So, for a while SAN was System Area Network, or at least that was what Microsoft® wanted it to be. That SAN obviously did not take off.
System Area Network (architecture shown below) presented a high speed network where server clusters can communicate. The communication protocol of choice was VIA (Virtual Interface Adapter), and the proposed applications, notably the Microsoft® SQL Server, would use Winsock API to interface with the network services. Cache coherency in the combined memory resources of a clustered network is often the technology to ensure data synchronization, consistency and integrity.
Alas, System Area Network did not truly take off, and now it is pretty much deprecated from the Microsoft® universe.
I took a week off blogging last week but the lazy days were inundated by bad news. A few more devastating ransomware attacks. This time, Colonial Pipeline in the US was hacked and its networks were shutdown by ransomware. These ransomware threats are never ending, and they are getting more damaging than ever. It is like trying to plug a leaking boat with your hands, and more leaks appear as you plug them.
More ransomware news hitting healthcare around the world last week:
We are forever chasing for a solution, forever losing because almost all technology defenses to protect the data against ransomware are reactive. Why is ransomware still such a big threat then? Time to rethink file security fundamentals.
I am not a Bitcoin miner nor am I a Chia coin farmer, and my knowledge and experience in both are very shallow. But I recently became interested in the 2 main activities of Chia – plotting and farming, because they both involved storage. I am writing this blog to find out more and document about my learning experience.
[ NB: This blog does not help you make money. It is just informational from a storage technology perspective. ]
Proof of Space and Time
Bitcoin is based on Proof-of-Work (PoW). In a nutshell, there is a complex mathematical puzzle to be solved. Bitcoin miners compete to solve this puzzle and the process uses high computational processing to solve it. Once solved, the miners are rewarded for their work.
Newer entrants like Filecoin and Chia coin (XCH) use an alternate method which is Proof-of-Space (PoS) to validate and verify the transactions. Instead of miners, Chia coin farmers have to prove to have a legitimate amount of disk and/or memory space to solve a mathematical puzzle, conceptually similar to the one in Bitcoin mining. In the beginning, this was great for folks who have unused disk space that can be “rented” out to store the crypto stuff (Note: I am not familiar with the terminology yet, and I did not want to use the word “crypto tokens” incorrectly). Storj was one of the early vendors that I remember in this space touting this method but I have not followed them for a while. Their business model might have changed.
In your opinion, which is the best storage technology? Yes, that question.
I wanted to write this commentary because someone with a PhD posted that question in a different context (below) on Facebook last week. It obviously touched a nerve with me because these are the same kinds of questions I get a lot through the latter half of my career. Next year will be my 30th year, and they have been primarily evolved around storage (alot!), data and Oil & Gas petro-technical computing and subsurface data management.
Best software for Big Data Analysis?
So, obviously, like a specialist doctor at a meeting, many would gather and ask that question over and over again. Too many to c0unt.
Do what the Irishman does
More often than not, the real reason behind that question is always about something else. And to find out more, do what the Irishman does. Always answer the question with another question.
Side story. I learn this Irishman anecdote from an Irishman while working at NetApp® 21 years ago. I am looking at you, Niall Doherty!
The Apple Filing Protocol (AFP) file sharing service in the MacOS Server is gone. The AFP file server capability was dropped in MacOS version 11, aka Big Sur back in December last year. The AFP clientis the last remaining piece in MacOS and may see its days numbered as well as the world of file services evolved from the simple local networks and workgroup collaboration of the 80s and 90s, to something more complex and demanding. The AFP’s decline was also probably aided by the premium prices of Apple hardware, and many past users have switched to Windows for frugality and prudence reasons. SMB/CIFS is the network file sharing services for Windows, and AFP is not offered in Windows natively.
MacOS supports 3 of the file sharing protocols natively – AFP, NFS and SMB/CIFS – as a client. Therefore, it has the capability to collaborate well in many media and content development environments, and sharing and exchanging files easily, assuming that the access control and permissions and files/folders ownerships are worked out properly. The large scale Apple-only network environment is no longer feasible and many studios that continue to use Macs for media and content development have only a handful of machines and users.
NAS vendors that continue to support AFP file server services are not that many too, or at least those who advertise their support for AFP. iXsystems™TrueNAS® is one of the few. This blog shows the steps to setup the AFP file services for MacOS clients.